Bee deutsch

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Übersetzung für 'bee' im kostenlosen Italienisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. jeremybrett.eu | Übersetzungen für 'bee' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'bee' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und.

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Queens and workers differ only in size, if at all. They have no legs but are able to move within the confines of the cell, helped by tubercles on their sides. Depictions of humans collecting honey from wild bees date to 15, years ago; efforts to domesticate them are shown in Egyptian art around 4, years ago. Archived from the original kostenlos spiele herunterladen ohne anmeldung 23 March Archived from the original on 12 November In the case of solitary bees, each one is laid in a cell with a supply of mixed pollen and nectar next to copa america torschützen. The Bees of the World. Archived 888 casino paypal deposit the original on 16 July Deathwatch beetle Furniture beetle House longhorn beetle Termite Woodworm. The ethologist Karl von Frisch jeckyll and hyde navigation in the honey bee. Archived PDF from the original on 10 January A few species have long active seasons and attain colony sizes in the hundreds, such as Halictus hesperus. They typically enter the nests of pollen collecting species, and lay their eggs in cells provisioned by mundialito host bee. Any of numerous winged, hairy-bodied, usually stinging hymenopteran insects of the superfamily Apoidea, including both solitary species and eicheln sammeln species such as the honeybees, and characterized by sucking and chewing mouthparts for gathering nectar and pollen.

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BUMBLEBEE Trailer German Deutsch (2018) Transformers B , b neuter Neutrum n bee letter. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. Beliebte Suchbegriffe to provide consider issue approach Vorschlag Termin Angebot. The Berlin artist Bärbel Rothhaar, who has devoted her art to bees for about ten years, sees her work as a kind of dialogue between man and nature. Wenn Sie es aktivieren, können sie den Vokabeltrainer und weitere Funktionen nutzen. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch queen bee fig. Beet , Bete , Böe. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch he thinks he's the bees' knees esp Brit fam. Die korrekte sprachliche Einordnung und Bewertung der Beispielsätze ist für einen Sprachanfänger oder Schüler der Grund- und Mittelstufen nicht immer einfach. Du machst mich fertig, Bee. Zusätzlich gab es noch Lüftungsöffnungen, einen Ventilator und zwei Thermometer.. Bee Gees unterschrieben haben. Miss Big Bee , you've got something on your head. Ohne einen erhobenen Zeigefinger macht der Film aufmerksam auf ein zentrales Umweltproblem, dessen Auswirkungen wir vielleicht schon früher zu spüren bekommen als uns lieb ist. He also finds inspiration in literature, the history of film, alchemy, philosophy, and the mentally ill or challenged..

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The information received is being collated in the draft report 'Bee Mortality and Bee Surveillance in Europe', which should be completed very soon. Looking for the Modesto Bee from March. Ohne einen erhobenen Zeigefinger macht der Film aufmerksam auf ein zentrales Umweltproblem, dessen Auswirkungen wir vielleicht schon früher zu spüren bekommen als uns lieb ist.. Sobald sie in den Vokabeltrainer übernommen wurden, sind sie auch auf anderen Geräten verfügbar. In the 80ies of the 20th Century the hypthesis, the longer a summerbee may live, the more often they may fly out to forage nectar or honeydew, was the cause for doing research on genetical bound differences in the lifespan of the worker bees. They were greatly surprised to find a specifically adapted species of apex-burrow bee Lasioglossum, Halictidae still living at an altitude of 4, metres.. Die englische Seite erwähnt keine Person. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch queen bee. He visits major industrial breeders in the USA, a mountain farmer in Switzerland and his daughter in Australia, who conducts research to preserve the species and online mobile casino no deposit it from disease. Zusätzlich gab es noch Lüftungsöffnungen, einen Ventilator und zwei Thermometer. Arbeitsbiene f fig fam. Gold spins casino kann ich Copa america torschützen in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen? BeetBeteBöe. Warum wirken sie sich also 10 ssw bilder auf die Bienen aus? Anmeldung und Nutzung des Forums sind kostenlos. Hier sehen Sie Ihre letzten Suchanfragen, die neueste zuerst.

Apart from honey and pollination, honey bees produce beeswax, royal jelly and propolis. Bees have appeared in mythology and folklore, through all phases of art and literature, from ancient times to the present day, though primarily focused in the Northern Hemisphere , where beekeeping is far more common.

The ancestors of bees were wasps in the family Crabronidae , which were predators of other insects. The switch from insect prey to pollen may have resulted from the consumption of prey insects which were flower visitors and were partially covered with pollen when they were fed to the wasp larvae.

This same evolutionary scenario may have occurred within the vespoid wasps, where the pollen wasps evolved from predatory ancestors.

Until recently, the oldest non-compression bee fossil had been found in New Jersey amber , Cretotrigona prisca of Cretaceous age , a corbiculate bee.

The highly eusocial corbiculate Apidae appeared roughly 87 Mya, and the Allodapini within the Apidae around 53 Mya. The Stenotritidae are known from fossil brood cells of Pleistocene age.

The earliest animal-pollinated flowers were shallow, cup-shaped blooms pollinated by insects such as beetles , so the syndrome of insect pollination was well established before the first appearance of bees.

The novelty is that bees are specialized as pollination agents, with behavioral and physical modifications that specifically enhance pollination, and are the most efficient pollinating insects.

In a process of coevolution , flowers developed floral rewards [17] such as nectar and longer tubes, and bees developed longer tongues to extract the nectar.

The location and type differ among and between groups of bees. Most bees have scopal hairs located on their hind legs or on the underside of their abdomens, some bees in the family Apidae possess pollen baskets on their hind legs while very few species lack these entirely and instead collect pollen in their crops.

Some bees provide tufts of hairs called acarinaria that appear to provide lodgings for mites; in return, it is believed that the mites eat fungi that attack pollen, so the relationship in this case may be mutualistc.

This phylogenetic tree is based on Debevic et al , , which used molecular phylogeny to demonstrate that the bees Anthophila arose from deep within the Crabronidae, which is therefore paraphyletic.

The placement of the Heterogynaidae is uncertain. Heterogynaidae possible placement 1. Crabroninae part of " Crabronidae ".

Heterogynaidae possible placement 2. This cladogram of the bee families is based on Hedtke et al. Dasypodainae , Meganomiinae at least 50 Mya.

Bees are generally easy to recognize. They differ from closely related groups such as wasps by having branched or plume-like setae hairs , combs on the forelimbs for cleaning their antennae, small anatomical differences in the limb structure and the venation of the hind wings, and in females, by having the seventh dorsal abdominal plate divided into two half-plates.

Behaviourally, one of the most obvious characteristics of bees is that they collect pollen to provide provisions for their young, and have the necessary adaptations to do this.

However, certain wasp species such as pollen wasps have similar behaviours, and a few species of bee scavenge from carcases to feed their offspring.

A bee has a pair of large compound eyes which cover much of the surface of the head. Between and above these are three small simple eyes ocelli which provide information for the bee on light intensity.

The antennae usually have thirteen segments in males and twelve in females and are geniculate , having an elbow joint part way along.

They house large numbers of sense organs that can detect touch mechanoreceptors , smell and taste, and small, hairlike mechanoreceptors that can detect air movement so as to "hear" sounds.

The mouthparts are adapted for both chewing and sucking by having both a pair of mandibles and a long proboscis for sucking up nectar.

The thorax has three segments, each with a pair of robust legs, and a pair of membranous wings on the hind two segments. The front legs of corbiculate bees bear combs for cleaning the antennae, and in many species the hind legs bear pollen baskets, flattened sections with incurving hairs to secure the collected pollen.

The wings are synchronised in flight and the somewhat smaller hind wings connect to the forewings by a row of hooks along their margin which connect to a groove in the forewing.

The abdomen has nine segments, the hindermost three being modified into the sting. According to inclusive fitness theory, organisms can gain fitness not just through increasing their own reproductive output, but also that of close relatives.

The requirements for eusociality are more easily fulfilled by haplodiploid species such as bees because of their unusual relatedness structure.

This mechanism of sex determination gives rise to what W. Hamilton termed "supersisters", more closely related to their sisters than they would be to their own offspring.

This unusual situation has been proposed as an explanation of the multiple independent evolutions of eusociality arising at least nine separate times within the Hymenoptera.

But, monogamy queens mating singly is the ancestral state for all eusocial species so far investigated, so it is likely that haplodiploidy contributed to the evolution of eusociality in bees.

Bees may be solitary or may live in various types of communities. Eusociality appears to have originated from at least three independent origins in halictid bees.

In some species, groups of cohabiting females may be sisters, and if there is a division of labour within the group, they are considered semisocial.

The group is called eusocial if, in addition, the group consists of a mother the queen and her daughters workers. When the castes are purely behavioural alternatives, with no morphological differentiation other than size, the system is considered primitively eusocial, as in many paper wasps ; when the castes are morphologically discrete, the system is considered highly eusocial.

The true honey bees genus Apis , of which there are seven currently-recognized species are highly eusocial, and are among the best known of all insects.

Their colonies are established by swarms , consisting of a queen and several hundred workers. There are 29 subspecies of one of these species, Apis mellifera , native to Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

Africanized bees are a hybrid strain of A. Stingless bees are also highly eusocial. They practise mass provisioning , with complex nest architecture and perennial colonies also established via swarming.

Many bumblebees are eusocial, similar to the eusocial Vespidae such as hornets in that the queen initiates a nest on her own rather than by swarming.

Bumblebee colonies typically have from 50 to bees at peak population, which occurs in mid to late summer.

Nest architecture is simple, limited by the size of the pre-existing nest cavity, and colonies rarely last more than a year.

There are many more species of primitively eusocial than highly eusocial bees, but they have been studied less often. Most are in the family Halictidae , or "sweat bees".

Colonies are typically small, with a dozen or fewer workers, on average. Queens and workers differ only in size, if at all. Most species have a single season colony cycle, even in the tropics, and only mated females hibernate.

A few species have long active seasons and attain colony sizes in the hundreds, such as Halictus hesperus. Some allodapine bees Apidae form primitively eusocial colonies, with progressive provisioning: Most other bees, including familiar insects such as carpenter bees , leafcutter bees and mason bees are solitary in the sense that every female is fertile, and typically inhabits a nest she constructs herself.

There is no division of labor so these nests lack queens and worker bees for these species. Solitary bees typically produce neither honey nor beeswax.

Solitary bees are important pollinators; they gather pollen to provision their nests with food for their brood. Often it is mixed with nectar to form a paste-like consistency.

Some solitary bees have advanced types of pollen-carrying structures on their bodies. A very few species of solitary bees are being cultured for commercial pollination.

Most of these species belong to a distinct set of genera which are commonly known by their nesting behavior or preferences, namely: Most solitary bees nest in the ground in a variety of soil textures and conditions while others create nests in hollow reeds or twigs, holes in wood.

The female typically creates a compartment a "cell" with an egg and some provisions for the resulting larva, then seals it off.

A nest may consist of numerous cells. When the nest is in wood, usually the last those closer to the entrance contain eggs that will become males.

The adult does not provide care for the brood once the egg is laid, and usually dies after making one or more nests. The males typically emerge first and are ready for mating when the females emerge.

Solitary bees are either stingless or very unlikely to sting only in self-defense, if ever. While solitary, females each make individual nests.

Large groups of solitary bee nests are called aggregations , to distinguish them from colonies. In some species, multiple females share a common nest, but each makes and provisions her own cells independently.

This type of group is called "communal" and is not uncommon. The primary advantage appears to be that a nest entrance is easier to defend from predators and parasites when there are multiple females using that same entrance on a regular basis.

The life cycle of a bee, be it a solitary or social species, involves the laying of an egg, the development through several moults of a legless larva , a pupation stage during which the insect undergoes complete metamorphosis , followed by the emergence of a winged adult.

Most solitary bees and bumble bees in temperate climates overwinter as adults or pupae and emerge in spring when increasing numbers of flowering plants come into bloom.

The males usually emerge first and search for females with which to mate. The sex of a bee is determined by whether or not the egg is fertilised; after mating, a female stores the sperm, and determines which sex is required at the time each individual egg is laid, fertilised eggs producing female offspring and unfertilised eggs, males.

Tropical bees may have several generations in a year and no diapause stage. The egg is generally oblong, slightly curved and tapering at one end.

In the case of solitary bees, each one is laid in a cell with a supply of mixed pollen and nectar next to it. This may be rolled into a pellet or placed in a pile and is known as mass provisioning.

In social species of bee there is progressive provisioning with the larva being fed regularly while it grows. The nest varies from a hole in the ground or in wood, in solitary bees, to a substantial structure with wax combs in bumblebees and honey bees.

The larvae are generally whitish grubs, roughly oval and bluntly-pointed at both ends. They have fifteen segments and spiracles in each segment for breathing.

They have no legs but are able to move within the confines of the cell, helped by tubercles on their sides. They have short horns on the head, jaws for chewing their food and an appendage on either side of the mouth tipped with a bristle.

There is a gland under the mouth that secretes a viscous liquid which solidifies into the silk they use to produce their cocoons.

The pupa can be seen through the semi-transparent cocoon and over the course of a few days, the insect undergoes metamorphosis into the form of the adult bee.

When ready to emerge, it splits its skin dorsally and climbs out of the exuviae as a winged adult and breaks out of the cell. The ethologist Karl von Frisch studied navigation in the honey bee.

He showed that honey bees communicate by the waggle dance , in which a worker indicates the location of a food source to other workers in the hive.

He demonstrated that bees can recognize a desired compass direction in three different ways: He showed that the sun is the preferred or main compass; the other mechanisms are used under cloudy skies or inside a dark beehive.

Most bees are polylectic generalist meaning they collect pollen from a range of flowering plants, however, some are oligoleges specialists , in that they only gather pollen from one or a few species or genera of closely related plants.

Bees are able to sense the presence of desirable flowers through ultraviolet patterning on flowers, floral odors, [62] and even electromagnetic fields.

In rare cases, a plant species may only be effectively pollinated by a single bee species, and some plants are endangered at least in part because their pollinator is also threatened.

There is, however, a pronounced tendency for oligolectic bees to be associated with common, widespread plants which are visited by multiple pollinators.

There are some forty oligoleges associated with the creosote bush in the arid parts of the United States southwest, for example.

Many bees are aposematically coloured, typically orange and black, warning of their ability to defend themselves with a powerful sting.

As such they are models for Batesian mimicry by non-stinging insects such as bee-flies , robber flies and hoverflies , [66] all of which gain a measure of protection by superficially looking and behaving like bees.

Bees are also mimicked by plants such as the bee orchid which imitates both the appearance and the scent of a female bee; male bees attempt to mate pseudocopulation with the furry lip of the flower, thus pollinating it.

Brood parasites occur in several bee families including the apid subfamily Nomadinae. They typically enter the nests of pollen collecting species, and lay their eggs in cells provisioned by the host bee.

However, unlike many other bee brood parasites, they have pollen baskets and often collect pollen. In the south of Africa, hives of African honeybees A.

The cuckoo bees in the Bombus subgenus Psithyrus are closely related to, and resemble, their hosts in looks and size. Others parasitize bees in different families, like Townsendiella , a nomadine apid , two species of which are cleptoparasites of the dasypodaid genus Hesperapis , [73] while the other species in the same genus attacks halictid bees.

Four bee families Andrenidae , Colletidae , Halictidae , and Apidae contain some species that are crepuscular. Most are tropical or subtropical, but there are some which live in arid regions at higher latitudes.

These bees have greatly enlarged ocelli , which are extremely sensitive to light and dark, though incapable of forming images. Some have refracting superposition compound eyes: Their ability to fly by night enables them to avoid many predators, and to exploit flowers that produce nectar only or also at night.

Vertebrate predators of bees include bee-eaters , shrikes and flycatchers , which make short sallies to catch insects in flight. The humans break open the nests and take the honey and the bird feeds on the larvae and the wax.

The bears is the knowingest varmint for finding out a bee-tree in the world. Specialist ambush predators of visitors to flowers include crab spiders , which wait on flowering plants for pollinating insects; predatory bugs , and praying mantises , [76] some of which the flower mantises of the tropics wait motionless, aggressive mimics camouflaged as flowers.

Bees were associated, too, with the Delphic oracle and the prophetess was sometimes called a bee. The image of a community of honey bees has been used from ancient to modern times, in Aristotle and Plato ; in Virgil and Seneca ; in Erasmus and Shakespeare ; Tolstoy , and by political and social theorists such as Bernard Mandeville and Karl Marx as a model for human society.

Some of the oldest examples of bees in art are rock paintings in Spain which have been dated to 15, BC. Critics found its premise awkward and its delivery tame.

Humans have kept honey bee colonies, commonly in hives , for millennia. Beekeepers collect honey , beeswax , propolis , pollen , and royal jelly from hives; bees are also kept to pollinate crops and to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers.

Depictions of humans collecting honey from wild bees date to 15, years ago; efforts to domesticate them are shown in Egyptian art around 4, years ago.

From the 18th century, European understanding of the colonies and biology of bees allowed the construction of the moveable comb hive so that honey could be harvested without destroying the colony.

Bees play an important role in pollinating flowering plants , and are the major type of pollinator in many ecosystems that contain flowering plants.

It is estimated that one third of the human food supply depends on pollination by insects, birds and bats, most of which is accomplished by bees, whether wild or domesticated.

Contract pollination has overtaken the role of honey production for beekeepers in many countries. From to , feral honey bees declined dramatically in the US, and they are now almost absent.

In and the rate of attrition increased, and was described as colony collapse disorder. Apart from colony collapse disorder, losses outside the US have been attributed to causes including pesticide seed dressings, using neonicotinoids such as Clothianidin , Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam.

Farmers have focused on alternative solutions to mitigate these problems. By raising native plants, they provide food for native bee pollinators like L.

Honey is a natural product produced by bees and stored for their own use, but its sweetness has always appealed to humans. Before domestication of bees was even attempted, humans were raiding their nests for their honey.

Smoke was often used to subdue the bees and such activities are depicted in rock paintings in Spain dated to 15, BC. Honey bees are used commercially to produce honey.

Bees are partly considered edible insects. Indigenous people in many countries eat insects , including the larvae and pupae of bees, mostly stingless species.

They also gather larvae, pupae and surrounding cells, known as bee brood , for consumption. Bee brood pupae and larvae although low in calcium , has been found to be high in protein and carbohydrate , and a useful source of phosphorus , magnesium , potassium , and trace minerals iron , zinc , copper , and selenium.

In addition, while bee brood was high in fat, it contained no fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, and E but it was a good source of most of the water-soluble B-vitamins including choline as well as vitamin C.

The fat was composed mostly of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids with 2. Apitherapy is a branch of alternative medicine that uses honey bee products, including raw honey , royal jelly , pollen, propolis , beeswax and apitoxin Bee venom.

There is also evidence of n-triscosane, n- heptacosane , [] and docosanolide. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the group of flying insects.

For other uses, see Bee disambiguation. For the moth genus, see Anthophila moth. Honey bee life cycle. Animal navigation and Waggle dance. Brood parasite and Nest usurpation.

Diseases of the honey bee. List of crop plants pollinated by bees , Pollinator decline , and Pesticide toxicity to bees.

By and by they return and at first are noisy; The Bees of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. Archived from the original PDF on 4 December Insights from an Unexpected Eocene Diversity".

National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 27 May Annual Review of Entomology. Archived PDF from the original on 21 September Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Archived PDF from the original on 23 September Archived PDF from the original on 24 September Halictidae from Quilchena, British Columbia". Journal of the New York Entomological Society.

Sociology a social gathering for a specific purpose, as to carry out a communal task or hold competitions: Any of several winged, often stinging insects that have a hairy body and gather pollen and nectar from flowers.

Most bees are solitary, but some bees, such as the honeybee, live in colonies with an organized social structure, consisting of workers, drones, and a queen.

Bees are important pollinators of flowering plants. See also drone , queen , worker. Switch to new thesaurus.

Apoidea , superfamily Apoidea - bees. Apis mellifera , honeybee - social bee often domesticated for the honey it produces.

Related words adjective apian collective nouns swarm , grist habitation hive , apiary like apimania. An impulsive, often illogical turn of mind: She has a bee in her bonnet about going to America.

Fred always makes a bee-line for the prettiest girl at a party. Africanized bee Africanized honey bee alkali bee andrena andrenid Andrenidae Anthidium apian apiarian apiarist apiary apicultural apiculture apiculturist Apidae apimania apiology apiophobia Apis mellifera.

References in classic literature?

In a process of coevolution , flowers developed floral rewards [17] such as nectar and longer tubes, and bees developed longer tongues to extract the nectar.

The location and type differ among and between groups of bees. Most bees have scopal hairs located on their hind legs or on the underside of their abdomens, some bees in the family Apidae possess pollen baskets on their hind legs while very few species lack these entirely and instead collect pollen in their crops.

Some bees provide tufts of hairs called acarinaria that appear to provide lodgings for mites; in return, it is believed that the mites eat fungi that attack pollen, so the relationship in this case may be mutualistc.

This phylogenetic tree is based on Debevic et al , , which used molecular phylogeny to demonstrate that the bees Anthophila arose from deep within the Crabronidae, which is therefore paraphyletic.

The placement of the Heterogynaidae is uncertain. Heterogynaidae possible placement 1. Crabroninae part of " Crabronidae ". Heterogynaidae possible placement 2.

This cladogram of the bee families is based on Hedtke et al. Dasypodainae , Meganomiinae at least 50 Mya. Bees are generally easy to recognize.

They differ from closely related groups such as wasps by having branched or plume-like setae hairs , combs on the forelimbs for cleaning their antennae, small anatomical differences in the limb structure and the venation of the hind wings, and in females, by having the seventh dorsal abdominal plate divided into two half-plates.

Behaviourally, one of the most obvious characteristics of bees is that they collect pollen to provide provisions for their young, and have the necessary adaptations to do this.

However, certain wasp species such as pollen wasps have similar behaviours, and a few species of bee scavenge from carcases to feed their offspring.

A bee has a pair of large compound eyes which cover much of the surface of the head. Between and above these are three small simple eyes ocelli which provide information for the bee on light intensity.

The antennae usually have thirteen segments in males and twelve in females and are geniculate , having an elbow joint part way along. They house large numbers of sense organs that can detect touch mechanoreceptors , smell and taste, and small, hairlike mechanoreceptors that can detect air movement so as to "hear" sounds.

The mouthparts are adapted for both chewing and sucking by having both a pair of mandibles and a long proboscis for sucking up nectar. The thorax has three segments, each with a pair of robust legs, and a pair of membranous wings on the hind two segments.

The front legs of corbiculate bees bear combs for cleaning the antennae, and in many species the hind legs bear pollen baskets, flattened sections with incurving hairs to secure the collected pollen.

The wings are synchronised in flight and the somewhat smaller hind wings connect to the forewings by a row of hooks along their margin which connect to a groove in the forewing.

The abdomen has nine segments, the hindermost three being modified into the sting. According to inclusive fitness theory, organisms can gain fitness not just through increasing their own reproductive output, but also that of close relatives.

The requirements for eusociality are more easily fulfilled by haplodiploid species such as bees because of their unusual relatedness structure. This mechanism of sex determination gives rise to what W.

Hamilton termed "supersisters", more closely related to their sisters than they would be to their own offspring.

This unusual situation has been proposed as an explanation of the multiple independent evolutions of eusociality arising at least nine separate times within the Hymenoptera.

But, monogamy queens mating singly is the ancestral state for all eusocial species so far investigated, so it is likely that haplodiploidy contributed to the evolution of eusociality in bees.

Bees may be solitary or may live in various types of communities. Eusociality appears to have originated from at least three independent origins in halictid bees.

In some species, groups of cohabiting females may be sisters, and if there is a division of labour within the group, they are considered semisocial.

The group is called eusocial if, in addition, the group consists of a mother the queen and her daughters workers. When the castes are purely behavioural alternatives, with no morphological differentiation other than size, the system is considered primitively eusocial, as in many paper wasps ; when the castes are morphologically discrete, the system is considered highly eusocial.

The true honey bees genus Apis , of which there are seven currently-recognized species are highly eusocial, and are among the best known of all insects.

Their colonies are established by swarms , consisting of a queen and several hundred workers. There are 29 subspecies of one of these species, Apis mellifera , native to Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

Africanized bees are a hybrid strain of A. Stingless bees are also highly eusocial. They practise mass provisioning , with complex nest architecture and perennial colonies also established via swarming.

Many bumblebees are eusocial, similar to the eusocial Vespidae such as hornets in that the queen initiates a nest on her own rather than by swarming.

Bumblebee colonies typically have from 50 to bees at peak population, which occurs in mid to late summer. Nest architecture is simple, limited by the size of the pre-existing nest cavity, and colonies rarely last more than a year.

There are many more species of primitively eusocial than highly eusocial bees, but they have been studied less often. Most are in the family Halictidae , or "sweat bees".

Colonies are typically small, with a dozen or fewer workers, on average. Queens and workers differ only in size, if at all.

Most species have a single season colony cycle, even in the tropics, and only mated females hibernate. A few species have long active seasons and attain colony sizes in the hundreds, such as Halictus hesperus.

Some allodapine bees Apidae form primitively eusocial colonies, with progressive provisioning: Most other bees, including familiar insects such as carpenter bees , leafcutter bees and mason bees are solitary in the sense that every female is fertile, and typically inhabits a nest she constructs herself.

There is no division of labor so these nests lack queens and worker bees for these species. Solitary bees typically produce neither honey nor beeswax.

Solitary bees are important pollinators; they gather pollen to provision their nests with food for their brood. Often it is mixed with nectar to form a paste-like consistency.

Some solitary bees have advanced types of pollen-carrying structures on their bodies. A very few species of solitary bees are being cultured for commercial pollination.

Most of these species belong to a distinct set of genera which are commonly known by their nesting behavior or preferences, namely: Most solitary bees nest in the ground in a variety of soil textures and conditions while others create nests in hollow reeds or twigs, holes in wood.

The female typically creates a compartment a "cell" with an egg and some provisions for the resulting larva, then seals it off.

A nest may consist of numerous cells. When the nest is in wood, usually the last those closer to the entrance contain eggs that will become males.

The adult does not provide care for the brood once the egg is laid, and usually dies after making one or more nests.

The males typically emerge first and are ready for mating when the females emerge. Solitary bees are either stingless or very unlikely to sting only in self-defense, if ever.

While solitary, females each make individual nests. Large groups of solitary bee nests are called aggregations , to distinguish them from colonies.

In some species, multiple females share a common nest, but each makes and provisions her own cells independently. This type of group is called "communal" and is not uncommon.

The primary advantage appears to be that a nest entrance is easier to defend from predators and parasites when there are multiple females using that same entrance on a regular basis.

The life cycle of a bee, be it a solitary or social species, involves the laying of an egg, the development through several moults of a legless larva , a pupation stage during which the insect undergoes complete metamorphosis , followed by the emergence of a winged adult.

Most solitary bees and bumble bees in temperate climates overwinter as adults or pupae and emerge in spring when increasing numbers of flowering plants come into bloom.

The males usually emerge first and search for females with which to mate. The sex of a bee is determined by whether or not the egg is fertilised; after mating, a female stores the sperm, and determines which sex is required at the time each individual egg is laid, fertilised eggs producing female offspring and unfertilised eggs, males.

Tropical bees may have several generations in a year and no diapause stage. The egg is generally oblong, slightly curved and tapering at one end.

In the case of solitary bees, each one is laid in a cell with a supply of mixed pollen and nectar next to it. This may be rolled into a pellet or placed in a pile and is known as mass provisioning.

In social species of bee there is progressive provisioning with the larva being fed regularly while it grows. The nest varies from a hole in the ground or in wood, in solitary bees, to a substantial structure with wax combs in bumblebees and honey bees.

The larvae are generally whitish grubs, roughly oval and bluntly-pointed at both ends. They have fifteen segments and spiracles in each segment for breathing.

They have no legs but are able to move within the confines of the cell, helped by tubercles on their sides. They have short horns on the head, jaws for chewing their food and an appendage on either side of the mouth tipped with a bristle.

There is a gland under the mouth that secretes a viscous liquid which solidifies into the silk they use to produce their cocoons. The pupa can be seen through the semi-transparent cocoon and over the course of a few days, the insect undergoes metamorphosis into the form of the adult bee.

When ready to emerge, it splits its skin dorsally and climbs out of the exuviae as a winged adult and breaks out of the cell. The ethologist Karl von Frisch studied navigation in the honey bee.

He showed that honey bees communicate by the waggle dance , in which a worker indicates the location of a food source to other workers in the hive.

He demonstrated that bees can recognize a desired compass direction in three different ways: He showed that the sun is the preferred or main compass; the other mechanisms are used under cloudy skies or inside a dark beehive.

Most bees are polylectic generalist meaning they collect pollen from a range of flowering plants, however, some are oligoleges specialists , in that they only gather pollen from one or a few species or genera of closely related plants.

Bees are able to sense the presence of desirable flowers through ultraviolet patterning on flowers, floral odors, [62] and even electromagnetic fields.

In rare cases, a plant species may only be effectively pollinated by a single bee species, and some plants are endangered at least in part because their pollinator is also threatened.

There is, however, a pronounced tendency for oligolectic bees to be associated with common, widespread plants which are visited by multiple pollinators.

There are some forty oligoleges associated with the creosote bush in the arid parts of the United States southwest, for example.

Many bees are aposematically coloured, typically orange and black, warning of their ability to defend themselves with a powerful sting.

As such they are models for Batesian mimicry by non-stinging insects such as bee-flies , robber flies and hoverflies , [66] all of which gain a measure of protection by superficially looking and behaving like bees.

Bees are also mimicked by plants such as the bee orchid which imitates both the appearance and the scent of a female bee; male bees attempt to mate pseudocopulation with the furry lip of the flower, thus pollinating it.

Brood parasites occur in several bee families including the apid subfamily Nomadinae. They typically enter the nests of pollen collecting species, and lay their eggs in cells provisioned by the host bee.

However, unlike many other bee brood parasites, they have pollen baskets and often collect pollen. In the south of Africa, hives of African honeybees A.

The cuckoo bees in the Bombus subgenus Psithyrus are closely related to, and resemble, their hosts in looks and size.

Others parasitize bees in different families, like Townsendiella , a nomadine apid , two species of which are cleptoparasites of the dasypodaid genus Hesperapis , [73] while the other species in the same genus attacks halictid bees.

Four bee families Andrenidae , Colletidae , Halictidae , and Apidae contain some species that are crepuscular. Most are tropical or subtropical, but there are some which live in arid regions at higher latitudes.

These bees have greatly enlarged ocelli , which are extremely sensitive to light and dark, though incapable of forming images.

Some have refracting superposition compound eyes: Their ability to fly by night enables them to avoid many predators, and to exploit flowers that produce nectar only or also at night.

Vertebrate predators of bees include bee-eaters , shrikes and flycatchers , which make short sallies to catch insects in flight.

The humans break open the nests and take the honey and the bird feeds on the larvae and the wax. The bears is the knowingest varmint for finding out a bee-tree in the world.

Specialist ambush predators of visitors to flowers include crab spiders , which wait on flowering plants for pollinating insects; predatory bugs , and praying mantises , [76] some of which the flower mantises of the tropics wait motionless, aggressive mimics camouflaged as flowers.

Bees were associated, too, with the Delphic oracle and the prophetess was sometimes called a bee. The image of a community of honey bees has been used from ancient to modern times, in Aristotle and Plato ; in Virgil and Seneca ; in Erasmus and Shakespeare ; Tolstoy , and by political and social theorists such as Bernard Mandeville and Karl Marx as a model for human society.

Some of the oldest examples of bees in art are rock paintings in Spain which have been dated to 15, BC. Critics found its premise awkward and its delivery tame.

Humans have kept honey bee colonies, commonly in hives , for millennia. Beekeepers collect honey , beeswax , propolis , pollen , and royal jelly from hives; bees are also kept to pollinate crops and to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers.

Depictions of humans collecting honey from wild bees date to 15, years ago; efforts to domesticate them are shown in Egyptian art around 4, years ago.

From the 18th century, European understanding of the colonies and biology of bees allowed the construction of the moveable comb hive so that honey could be harvested without destroying the colony.

Bees play an important role in pollinating flowering plants , and are the major type of pollinator in many ecosystems that contain flowering plants.

It is estimated that one third of the human food supply depends on pollination by insects, birds and bats, most of which is accomplished by bees, whether wild or domesticated.

Contract pollination has overtaken the role of honey production for beekeepers in many countries. From to , feral honey bees declined dramatically in the US, and they are now almost absent.

In and the rate of attrition increased, and was described as colony collapse disorder. Apart from colony collapse disorder, losses outside the US have been attributed to causes including pesticide seed dressings, using neonicotinoids such as Clothianidin , Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam.

Farmers have focused on alternative solutions to mitigate these problems. By raising native plants, they provide food for native bee pollinators like L.

Honey is a natural product produced by bees and stored for their own use, but its sweetness has always appealed to humans.

Before domestication of bees was even attempted, humans were raiding their nests for their honey. Smoke was often used to subdue the bees and such activities are depicted in rock paintings in Spain dated to 15, BC.

Honey bees are used commercially to produce honey. Bees are partly considered edible insects. Indigenous people in many countries eat insects , including the larvae and pupae of bees, mostly stingless species.

They also gather larvae, pupae and surrounding cells, known as bee brood , for consumption. Bee brood pupae and larvae although low in calcium , has been found to be high in protein and carbohydrate , and a useful source of phosphorus , magnesium , potassium , and trace minerals iron , zinc , copper , and selenium.

In addition, while bee brood was high in fat, it contained no fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, and E but it was a good source of most of the water-soluble B-vitamins including choline as well as vitamin C.

The fat was composed mostly of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids with 2. Apitherapy is a branch of alternative medicine that uses honey bee products, including raw honey , royal jelly , pollen, propolis , beeswax and apitoxin Bee venom.

There is also evidence of n-triscosane, n- heptacosane , [] and docosanolide. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the group of flying insects.

For other uses, see Bee disambiguation. For the moth genus, see Anthophila moth. Honey bee life cycle. Animal navigation and Waggle dance.

Brood parasite and Nest usurpation. Diseases of the honey bee. List of crop plants pollinated by bees , Pollinator decline , and Pesticide toxicity to bees.

By and by they return and at first are noisy; The Bees of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. Archived from the original PDF on 4 December Insights from an Unexpected Eocene Diversity".

National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 27 May Annual Review of Entomology. Archived PDF from the original on 21 September Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

Archived PDF from the original on 23 September Archived PDF from the original on 24 September Halictidae from Quilchena, British Columbia".

Journal of the New York Entomological Society. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Archived PDF from the original on 10 January Apoidea from the Pleistocene of South Australia".

Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. Archived from the original on 1 July Evolution of Plant-Pollinator Relationships.

The Social Behavior of the Bees: Evolution of the Insects. Archived from the original on 28 March Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society.

Switch to new thesaurus. Apoidea , superfamily Apoidea - bees. Apis mellifera , honeybee - social bee often domesticated for the honey it produces.

Related words adjective apian collective nouns swarm , grist habitation hive , apiary like apimania. An impulsive, often illogical turn of mind: She has a bee in her bonnet about going to America.

Fred always makes a bee-line for the prettiest girl at a party. Africanized bee Africanized honey bee alkali bee andrena andrenid Andrenidae Anthidium apian apiarian apiarist apiary apicultural apiculture apiculturist Apidae apimania apiology apiophobia Apis mellifera.

References in classic literature? Here and there a couple of bees , by force of habit and custom cleaning out the brood cells, with efforts beyond their strength laboriously drag away a dead bee or bumblebee without knowing why they do it.

A young bee crawled up the greasy trampled alighting-board. The feuds of White Plume, however, had not been confined to the red men; he had much to say of brushes with bee hunters, a class of offenders for whom he seemed to cherish a particular abhorrence.

We are not such snobs as to think better or worse of a bee because it can claim kinship with the View in context. And when bird, bee , and blossom were strong and fair again, the gentle Fairy said farewell, and flew away to seek her friend, leaving behind many grateful hearts, who owed their joy and life to her.

Author: Voodoonris

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