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This movement would result in the creation of the state-owned Mexican oil company known as Pemex. Between and , Mexico remained a poor country but experienced substantial economic growth that some historians call the " Mexican miracle ".
That year, oil prices plunged , interest rates soared, and the government defaulted on its debt. President Miguel de la Madrid resorted to currency devaluations which in turn sparked inflation.
Salinas embarked on a program of neoliberal reforms which fixed the exchange rate, controlled inflation, and culminated with the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA , which came into effect on January 1, The same day, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation EZLN started a two-week-long armed rebellion against the federal government, and has continued as a non-violent opposition movement against neoliberalism and globalization.
His political coalition, led by left-wing party MORENA , which was founded after the elections by Andres, includes parties and politicians from all over the political spectrum and also obtained a majority in both the upper and lower congress chambers.
Donald Trump made the construction of a border wall on the U. Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental , which are the extension of the Rocky Mountains from northern North America.
From east to west at the center, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Sierra Nevada.
As such, the majority of the Mexican central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four elevations: Toluca , Greater Mexico City and Puebla.
The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months.
South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation.
Both Mexican coasts, except for the south coast of the Bay of Campeche and northern Baja, are also vulnerable to serious hurricanes during the summer and fall.
Mexico ranks fourth  in the world in biodiversity and is one of the 17 megadiverse countries. In [update] , Mexico had the second fastest rate of deforestation in the world, second only to Brazil.
These include 34 biosphere reserves unaltered ecosystems , 67 national parks , 4 natural monuments protected in perpetuity for their aesthetic, scientific or historical value , 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, 4 areas for natural resource protection conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests and 17 sanctuaries zones rich in diverse species.
The discovery of the Americas brought to the rest of the world many widely used food crops and edible plants. Most of these names come from indigenous languages like Nahuatl.
Because of its high biodiversity Mexico has also been a frequent site of bioprospecting by international research bodies. The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative , democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the Constitution.
The constitution establishes three levels of government: According to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: They also have their own civil and judicial codes.
The federal legislature is the bicameral Congress of the Union , composed of the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.
The Congress makes federal law , declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments.
The federal Congress, as well as the state legislatures, are elected by a system of parallel voting that includes plurality and proportional representation.
Of these, are elected by plurality vote in single-member districts the federal electoral districts and are elected by proportional representation with closed party lists  for which the country is divided into five electoral constituencies.
Of these, 64 senators two for each state and two for Mexico City are elected by plurality vote in pairs; 32 senators are the first minority or first-runner up one for each state and one for Mexico City , and 32 are elected by proportional representation from national closed party lists.
The executive is the President of the United Mexican States , who is the head of state and government , as well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces.
The President also appoints the Cabinet and other officers. The President is responsible for executing and enforcing the law, and has the power to veto bills.
The highest organ of the judicial branch of government is the Supreme Court of Justice , the national supreme court , which has eleven judges appointed by the President and approved by the Senate.
The Supreme Court of Justice interprets laws and judges cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Federal Electoral Tribunal , collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary.
Three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics: Public security is enacted at the three levels of government, each of which has different prerogatives and responsibilities.
Local and state police departments are primarily in charge of law enforcement, whereas the Mexican Federal Police are in charge of specialized duties.
While the government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, serious abuses of power have been reported in security operations in the southern part of the country and in indigenous communities and poor urban neighborhoods.
Despite the efforts of the authorities to fight crime and fraud, most Mexicans have low confidence in the police or the judicial system, and therefore, few crimes are actually reported by the citizens.
Drug cartels are a major concern in Mexico. More than journalists and media workers have been killed or disappeared since , and most of these crimes remained unsolved, improperly investigated, and with few perpetrators arrested and convicted.
The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the President of Mexico  and managed through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In addition, since the s Mexico has sought a reform of the United Nations Security Council and its working methods  with the support of Canada, Italy, Pakistan and other nine countries, which form a group informally called the Coffee Club.
After the War of Independence , the relations of Mexico were focused primarily on the United States, its northern neighbor, largest trading partner ,  and the most powerful actor in hemispheric and world affairs.
The Mexican Armed Forces have two branches: The Mexican Armed Forces maintain significant infrastructure, including facilities for design, research, and testing of weapons, vehicles, aircraft, naval vessels, defense systems and electronics;   military industry manufacturing centers for building such systems, and advanced naval dockyards that build heavy military vessels and advanced missile technologies.
In recent years, Mexico has improved its training techniques, military command and information structures and has taken steps to becoming more self-reliant in supplying its military by designing as well as manufacturing its own arms,  missiles,  aircraft,  vehicles, heavy weaponry, electronics,  defense systems,  armor, heavy military industrial equipment and heavy naval vessels.
Mexico has the capabilities to manufacture nuclear weapons, but abandoned this possibility with the Treaty of Tlatelolco in and pledged to only use its nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.
Historically, Mexico has remained neutral in international conflicts,  with the exception of World War II. However, in recent years some political parties have proposed an amendment of the Constitution to allow the Mexican Army, Air Force or Navy to collaborate with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions , or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it.
The United Mexican States are a federation of 31 free and sovereign states, which form a union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over Mexico City and other territories.
Each state has its own constitution, congress , and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms.
Mexico City is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state. Formerly known as the Federal District, its autonomy was previously limited relative to that of the states.
The states are divided into municipalities , the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president presidente municipal , elected by its residents by plurality.
GDP annual average growth for the period of — was 5. After the slowdown of the country has recovered and has grown 4. Nevertheless, according to Goldman Sachs , by Mexico will have the 5th largest economy in the world.
The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade. Mexico produces the most automobiles of any North American nation.
The remittances from Mexican citizens working in the United States account for 0. Other players in the domestic industry are Axtel and Maxcom.
Mobile telephony has the advantage of reaching all areas at a lower cost, and the total number of mobile lines is almost two times that of landlines, with an estimation of 63 million lines.
The Mexican satellite system is domestic and operates earth stations. There is also extensive microwave radio relay network and considerable use of fiber-optic and coaxial cable.
Energy production in Mexico is managed by the state-owned companies Federal Commission of Electricity and Pemex. It is expected that in there will be 1,8 million square meters of installed solar thermal panels.
At an installed capacity of The National Autonomous University of Mexico was officially established in ,  and the university became one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico.
Most of the new research institutes were created within UNAM. Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from to In , the Mexican chemist Mario J.
Sherwood Rowland for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. Mexico has traditionally been among the most visited countries in the world according to the World Tourism Organization and it is the most visited country in the Americas after the United States.
The most notable attractions are the Mesoamerican ruins, cultural festivals, colonial cities, nature reserves and the beach resorts. The peak tourism seasons in the country are during December and the mid-Summer, with brief surges during the week before Easter and Spring break , when many of the beach resort sites become popular destinations for college students from the United States.
As of , Mexico was the 6th most visited country in the world and had the 15th highest income from tourism in the world which is also the highest in Latin America.
A smaller number also come from other Latin American countries. The coastlines of Mexico harbor many stretches of beaches that are frequented by sunbathers and other visitors.
According to national law , the entirety of the coastlines are under federal ownership, that is, all beaches in the country are public.
Just offshore is the beach island of Isla Mujeres , and to the east is the Isla Holbox. In addition to its beaches, the town of Tulum is notable for its cliff-side Mayan ruins.
On the Pacific coast is the notable tourist destination of Acapulco. Once the destination for the rich and famous, the beaches have become crowded and the shores are now home to many multi-story hotels and vendors.
Acapulco is home to renowned cliff divers: At the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula is the resort town of Cabo San Lucas , a town noted for its beaches and marlin fishing.
The roadway network in Mexico is extensive and all areas in the country are covered by it. Other achievements include the existence of a functioning national system to finance water and sanitation infrastructure with a National Water Commission as its apex institution; and the existence of a few well-performing utilities such as Aguas y Drenaje de Monterrey.
In addition to on-going investments to expand access, the government has embarked on a large investment program to improve wastewater treatment.
Throughout the 19th century, the population of Mexico had barely doubled. This trend continued during the first two decades of the 20th century, and even in the census there was a loss of about 2 million inhabitants.
The phenomenon can be explained because during the decade from to the Mexican Revolution took place. The Mexican population doubled in twenty years, and at that rate it was expected that by the year there would be million Mexicans.
Life expectancy went from 36 years in to 72 years in the year As a result, since the only explicit ethnic classification that has been included in Mexican censuses has been that of "Indigenous peoples".
It is not until very recently that the Mexican government begun conducting surveys that considered the Afro-Mexican and Euro-Mexican population that lives in the country.
As of [update] , it is estimated that 1. Mexico is ethnically diverse; with people of several ethnicities being united under a single national identity.
The large majority of Mexicans have historically been classified as " Mestizos ". In modern Mexican usage, the term mestizo is primarily a cultural identity rather than the racial identity it was during the colonial era, resulting in individuals with varying phenotypes being classified under the same identity, regardless of whether they are of mixed ancestry or not.
Many practice subsistence agriculture and regulate some internal issues under customary law. Similarly to Mestizo and Indigenous peoples, estimations for the percentage of European-descended Mexicans within the Mexican population vary considerably: The Afro-Mexican population 1,, individuals as of [update]  is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent.
Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period and some , Africans were taken there, primarily in the 17th century.
Evidence of this long history of intermarriage with Mestizo and indigenous Mexicans is also expressed in the fact that in the inter-census, It was also reported that 9.
During the early 20th century, a substantial number of Arabs mostly Christians  began arriving from the crumbling Ottoman Empire.
The largest group were the Lebanese and an estimated , Mexicans have some Lebanese ancestry. During the colonial era Asians were termed Chino regardless of ethnicity , and arrived as merchants, artisans and slaves.
The first census in Mexico then known as New Spain that included an ethnic classification was the census. Also known as the Revillagigedo census.
Most of its original datasets have reportedly been lost, thus most of what is known about it nowadays comes from essays and field investigations made by academics who had access to the census data and used it as reference for their works such as Prussian geographer Alexander von Humboldt.
The total population ranged from 3,, to 6,, In recent times the Mexican government has decided to conduct new ethnic surveys and censuses, also widening the criteria to classify the ethnicities who were already considered such as the Indigenous Mexican one, which was previously reserved to people who lived in indigenous communities or spoke an indigenous language.
In the early s, around , Mexicans lived abroad, which increased sevenfold by the s to 4. The letters b and v have the same pronunciation as well.
The federal government officially recognizes sixty-eight linguistic groups and varieties of indigenous languages.
Aside from indigenous languages, there are several minority languages spoken in Mexico due to international migration such as Low German by the 80,strong Menonite population , primarily settled in the northern states, fuelled by the tolerance of the federal government towards this community by allowing them to set their own educational system compatible with their customs and traditions.
It is estimated that nearly 24 million, or around a fifth of the population, study the language through public schools, private institutions or self-access channels.
The s was marked by a religious conflict known as the Cristero War , in which many peasants encouraged by the clergy clashed with the federal government that had decided to enforce the constitutional laws of Among the measures contemplated by the Magna Carta were the suppression of the monastic orders and the cancellation of all religious worship.
The war ended with an agreement between the parties in conflict Catholic Church and State , by means of which the respective fields of action were defined.
Until the middle of the s, the Mexican constitution did not recognize the existence of any religious group. In , a law was enacted whereby the State granted them legal status as "religious associations".
This fact allowed the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with the Holy See , to which the Mexican State did not recognize as a political entity.
According to the figures of INEGI , most Mexicans declare themselves Christian and most Catholics almost 93 million adherents according to the census of The denominations Pentecostal also have an important presence, especially in the cities of the border and in the indigenous communities.
In fact, Pentecostal churches together have more than 1. The situation changes when the different Pentecostal denominations are considered as separate entities.
Migratory phenomena have led to the proliferation of different aspects of Christianity, including branches Protestants , Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Church.
According to Jacobo Grinberg-Zylberbaum in texts edited by the National Autonomous University of Mexico , it is remarkable the survival of magic-religious rituals of the old indigenous groups, not only in the current indigenous people but in the mestizos and whites that make up the Mexican rural and urban society.
There is often a syncretism between shamanism and the Catholic tradition. Although Mexico was also a recipient of black slaves from Africa in the 16th century, the apogee of these cults is relatively new.
In certain regions, the profession of a creed other than the Catholic is seen as a threat to community unity. It is argued that the Catholic religion is part of the ethnic identity, and that the Protestants are not willing to participate in the traditional customs and practices the tequio or community work, participation in the festivities and similar issues.
The refusal of the Protestants is because their religious beliefs do not allow them to participate in the cult of images.
In extreme cases, tension between Catholics and Protestants has led to the expulsion or even murder of Protestants in several villages.
A similar argument was presented by a committee of anthropologists to request the government of the Republic to expel the Summer Linguistic Institute SIL , in the year , which was accused of promoting the division of indigenous peoples by translating the Bible into vernacular languages and evangelizing in a Protestant creed that threatened the integrity of popular cultures.
The Mexican government paid attention to the call of the anthropologists and canceled the agreement that had held with the SIL.
Conflicts have also occurred in other areas of social life. This type of problem can only be solved with the intervention of the National Commission of Human Rights , and not always with favorable results for children.
The impact of the Catholic religion in Mexico has also caused a fusion of elements. Beyond churches and religious denominations, a phenomenon persists in Mexico that some anthropologists and sociologists call "popular religion", that is, religion as the practice and understanding of the people.
In Mexico, the main component is the Catholic religion, to which elements of other beliefs have been added, already of pre-Hispanic, African or Asian origin.
In general, popular religiosity is viewed with bad eyes by institutionally structured religions. One of the most exemplary cases of popular religiosity is the cult of Holy Dead Santa Muerte.
The Catholic hierarchy insists on describing it as a satanic cult. However, most of the people who profess this cult declare themselves to be Catholic believers, and consider that there is no contradiction between the tributes they offer to the White Child and the adoration of God.
Other examples are the representations of the Passion of Christ and the celebration of Day of the Dead , which take place within the framework of the Catholic Christian imaginary, but under a very particular reinterpretation of its protagonists.
In the census 18, Mexicans reported belonging to an Eastern religion ,  a category which includes a tiny Buddhist population.
With urbanization beginning in the sixteenth century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire , cities have provided economic and social opportunities not possible within rural villages.
As of [update] , Mexico has the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women in the world. Exogenous cultural elements have been incorporated into Mexican culture as time has passed.
The Porfirian era el Porfiriato , in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace.
Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution , cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje , of which the indigenous i.
Amerindian element is the core. The painting is one of the oldest arts in Mexico. The cave painting in Mexican territory is about years old, and has been manifested in the caves of the Baja California Peninsula.
Pre-Hispanic Mexico is present in buildings and caves, in Aztec codices , in ceramics , in garments, etc. The mural painting had an important flowering during the 16th century, the same in religious constructions as in houses of lineage; such is the case of the convents of Acolman , Actopan , Huejotzingo , Tecamachalco and Zinacantepec.
It is said that they were mainly indigenous painters led by friars who made them. For a time it was believed that the first European painter living in New Spain was Rodrigo de Cifuentes , an apocryphal artist who even came to be attributed works such as The Baptism of the Caciques de Tlaxcala , painting of the main altarpiece of the Convent of San Francisco in Tlaxcala.
Among the native painters was Marcos Aquino. The religiosity of the Novohispanos "New-spanish" made that the painting was important for the evangelization of the society, the friars realized the graphic skills of the natives, who enriched the baroque and mannerist style.
The painting of the 19th century had a very marked romantic influence, landscapes and portraits were the greatest expression of this era. Hermenegildo Bustos is one of the most appreciated painters of the historiography of Mexican art.
The Oaxacan School quickly gained fame and prestige, diffusion of an ancestral and modern culture, freedom of design is observed in relation to the color and texture of the canvases and murals as a period of transition between the 20th century and the 21st century.
Some of the most outstanding painters in the 21st century current painters: She studied painting in Beijing. Her work, of marked oriental influence, recalls the cut paper figures of Mexico and China, mixing them with a rich chromatic range; Eliseo Garza Aguilar , painter and performer considered among the leading exponents of the provocative and reflective art of the Third Millennium; in search of a critical response from the spectators, he combines his pictorial work in the performances with theatrical histrionics; Pilar Goutas , a painter who uses oil on amate support, with strong influence from Jackson Pollock and Chinese calligraphy ; Rafael Torres Correa settles his residence in Mexico in and joins the contemporary art workshop "La Polilla" in Guadalajara , and performs various plastic and scenographic projects.
Throughout history several prominent painters of different nationalities have expressed in their works the face of Mexico.
From the Spanish conquest, civil and religious sculpture is worked by indigenous artists, with guidance from teachers of the peninsula, so some pre-Hispanic features are shown.
Since the 17th century, white and mestizo sculptors have created works with a marked influence of European classicism.
Romanticism tended to break the strict norms and models of classicism, as it pursued ideas influenced by realism and nationalism.
The religious sculpture was reduced to a sporadic imagery, while the secular sculpture continued in portraits and monumental art of a civic nature.
Between and the predominant themes were, successively: The transcendent was to introduce civil reasons, the first national types and glimpses of a current of self-expression.
The presence of the human being in the Mexican territory has left important archaeological findings of great importance for the explanation of the habitat of primitive man and contemporary man.
The Mesoamerican civilizations managed to have great stylistic development and proportion on the human and urban scale, the form was evolving from simplicity to aesthetic complexity; in the north of the country the adobe and stone architecture is manifested, the multifamily housing as we can see in Casas Grandes ; and the troglodyte dwelling in caves of the Sierra Madre Occidental.
With the arrival of the Spaniards, architectural theories of the Greco-Roman order with Arab influences were introduced. Due to the process of evangelization , when the first monastic temples and monasteries were built, their own models were projected, such as the mendicant monasteries , unique in their type in architecture.
The interaction between Spaniards and natives gave rise to artistic styles such as the so-called tequitqui from Nahuatl: Years later the baroque and mannerism were imposed in large cathedrals and civil buildings, while rural areas are built haciendas or stately farms with Mozarabic tendencies.
Romanticists from a past seen through archeology show images of medieval Europe, Islamic and pre-Hispanic Mexico in the form of architectural elements in the construction of international exhibition pavilions looking for an identity typical of the national culture.
The art nouveau , and the art deco were styles introduced into the design of the Palacio de Bellas Artes to mark the identity of the Mexican nation with Greek-Roman and pre-Hispanic symbols.
The emergence of the new Mexican architecture was born as a formal order of the policies of a nationalist state that sought modernity and the differentiation of other nations.
The Jalisco School was a proposal of those socio-political movements that the country demanded. Mexican architecture is a cultural phenomenon born of the ideology of nationalist governments of the 20th century, which was shaping the identity image by its colorful and variegated ornamental elements inherited from ancestral cultures, classical and monumental forms and, subsequently, the incorporation of modernism and cutting-edge international trends.
In ethnic and cultural terms, Lo mexicano corresponds only to everything that is referred to the Aztec culture; therefore, ethnically Mexicans are those who are also known as Nahuas and whose language is Nahuatl.
In legal terms and in accordance with the Constitution , Mexican is a citizen born within the territory of the United Mexican States or whoever has decided adopt the Mexican citizenship.
The Mexican could be what characterizes the being of Mexico and its people; however, it is an ethnic concept that only defines the mestizo identity that had been related for a long time and that is limited with respect to the ethnic diversity of the country.
It is an intellectual construction product of the approaches of specialists to the cultural reality of the country. In trying to capture in a single figure the multicultural reality of Mexico, the result of the intellectual analysis has produced a series of stereotypes and truisms about what it is to be a Mexican.
This discourse about The Mexican has been used in the political field to legitimize power, and at the same time it is imposed on the population of the country as a fact beyond all doubt.
The intellectual construction of the mestizo is in dialogue with the triumph of revolutionary nationalism, which was born after the Mexican Revolution.
In the reflection on the subject the character of the Mexican, the mexicanity, the definition of a Mexican have participated, among others: Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica.
The most well known prehispanic poet is Nezahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica.
Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin.
Mesoamerican architecture is mostly noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt. Spanish Colonial architecture is marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain.
Mexico, as the center of New Spain has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. Mexican films from the Golden Age in the s and s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years.
Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. Some Mexican actors have achieved recognition as Hollywood stars.
There are three major television companies in Mexico that own the primary networks and broadcast covering all nation, Televisa , TV Azteca and Imagen Television.
Grupo Multimedios is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States. Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture.
Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain.
In , Mexico presented the candidature of its gastronomy for World Heritage Site of UNESCO, being the first occasion in which a country had presented its gastronomic tradition for this purpose.
The origin of the current Mexican cuisine is established during the Spanish colonization, being a mixture of the foods of Spain with native indigenous ingredients.
Other Indigenous products are many beans. Similarly, some cooking techniques used today are inherited from pre-Hispanic peoples, such as the nixtamalization of corn, the cooking of food in ovens at ground level, grinding in molcajete and metate.
With the Spaniards came the pork, beef and chicken meats; peppercorn , sugar, milk and all its derivatives, wheat and rice, citrus fruits and another constellation of ingredients that are part of the daily diet of Mexicans.
From this meeting of millennia old two culinary traditions, were born pozole , mole sauce , barbacoa and tamale is in its current forms, the chocolate , a large range of breads , tacos , and the broad repertoire of Mexican street foods.
It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico by Cornish miners at the end of the 19th century. By a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence.
The Mexican professional baseball league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol. While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles.
Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela.
Bullfighting is a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings. Mexico is an international power in professional boxing at the amateur level, several Olympic boxing medals have also been won by Mexico.
The current coat of arms of Mexico Spanish: It depicts a Mexican golden eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus devouring a rattlesnake. Since the early s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan.
Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings.
Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara , have signed agreements with the U. Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the federal republic in North America. For other uses, see Mexico disambiguation.
None at federal level [b]. Spanish and 68 Amerindian languages . Pre-Columbian Mexico and Mesoamerican chronology. Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Mexican War of Independence. A jaguar at the Chapultepec Zoo. The zoo is known for its success in breeding programs of threatened species.
Federal government of Mexico. Law enforcement in Mexico. Foreign relations of Mexico. Economic history of Mexico. Electricity sector in Mexico.
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. History of science and technology in Mexico.
Water supply and sanitation in Mexico. Metropolitan areas of Mexico and List of cities in Mexico. Religion in Mexico census  Roman Catholicism.
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Many codices made both during Pre-hispanic Mexico and in the Spanish colony are preserved. The art of the Colonial Mexico center of New Spain developed a large number of painters born in Mexico.
Now these works are preserved in museums in many cities of Mexico. A cultural expression starting in the s created by a group of intellectual Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution , reinforced by the Great Depression and the First World War.
Mexican literature and Mesoamerican literature. Mexican television and List of newspapers in Mexico. The first chocolate version liquid was made by indigenous people in present-day Mexico, and was exported from Mexico to Europe after the Spanish conquest.
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These are small commemorative paintings or other artwork created by a believer, honoring the intervention of a saint or other figure.
The untrained style of ex-voto painting was appropriated during the midth century by Kahlo, who believed they were the most authentic expression of Latin American art.
Cinematography came to Mexico during the Mexican Revolution from the U. It was initially used to document the battles of the war.
Revolutionary general Pancho Villa himself starred in some silent films. Villa consciously used cinema to shape his public image. The first sound film in Mexico was made in , called Desde Santa.
The first Mexican film genre appeared between and , called ranchero. These films featured archetypal star figures and symbols based on broad national mythologies.
Settings were often ranches, the battlefields of the Revolution, and cabarets. Mexico had two advantages in filmmaking during this period.
The first was a generation of talented actors and filmmakers. In the s, the government became interested in the industry in order to promote cultural and political values.
Much of the production during the Golden Age was financed with a mix of public and private money, with the government eventually taking a larger role.
This gave the government extensive censorship rights through deciding which projects to finance. The Golden Age ended in the late s, with the s dominated by poorly made imitations of Hollywood westerns and comedies.
These films were increasingly shot outdoors and popular films featured stars from lucha libre. Art and experimental film production in Mexico has its roots in the same period, which began to bear fruit in the s.
His first major success was with Reed: Insurgent Mexico followed by a biography of Frida Kahlo called Frida He is the most consistently political of modern Mexican directors.
In the s, he filmed Latino Bar and Dollar Mambo His silent films generally have not had commercial success. In the late 20th century the main proponent of Mexican art cinema was Arturo Ripstein Jr..
Some of his classic films include El Castillo de la pureza , Lugar sin limites and La reina de la noche exploring topics such as family ties and even homosexuality, dealing in cruelty, irony, and tragedy.
Another factor was that many Mexican film making facilities were taken over by Hollywood production companies in the s, crowding out local production.
The movie was banned by the government but received support in Mexico and abroad. The film was shown although not widely. Starting in the s, Mexican cinema began to make a comeback, mostly through co-production with foreign interests.
Those for a more domestic audience tend to be more personal and more ambiguously political such as Pueblo de Madera , La Vida Conjugal , and Angel de fuego.
Those geared for international audiences have more stereotypical Mexican images and include Solo con tu Pareja , La Invencion de Cronos along with Como Agua para Chocolate.
Film professionals in the early 21st century tend to be at least bilingual Spanish and English and are better able to participate in the global market for films than their predecessors.
Photography came to Mexico in the form of daguerreotype about six months after its discovery, and it spread quickly.
It was initially used for portraits of the wealthy because of its high cost , and for shooting landscapes and pre-Hispanic ruins. Modern photography in Mexico did not begin as an art form, but rather as documentation, associated with periodicals and government projects.
This image was European-based with some indigenous elements for distinction. Like Kahlo, he began his career in the Porfirato, but his career was focused on photography for periodicals.
He began to focus not only on portraits of the main protagonists such as Francisco Villa and general battle scenes, but on executions and the dead.
He focused on people whose faces showed such expressions as pain, kindness, and resignation. His work during this time produced a large collection of photographs, many of which are familiar to Mexicans as they have been widely reprinted and reused, often without credit to Casasola.
After the war, Casasola continued to photograph common people, especially migrants to Mexico City during the s and s. His total known archives comprise about half a million images with many of his works archived in the former monastery of San Francisco in Pachuca.
Kahlo and Casasola are considered the two most important photographers to develop the medium in Mexico, with Kahlo defining architectural photography and Casasolas establishing photojournalism.
Neither man thought of himself as an artist—especially not Casasolas—who thought of himself as a historian in the Positivist tradition, but the photography of both show attention to detail, lighting, and placement of subjects for emotional or dramatic effect.
For the rest of the 20th century, most photography was connected to documentation. However, artistic trends from both inside and outside the country had an effect.
In the s, the dominant photographic style was Pictorialism , in which images had a romantic or dream-like quality due to the use of filters and other techniques.
American Edward Weston broke with this tradition, taking these effects away for more realistic and detailed images. Manuel Alvarez Bravo experimented with abstraction in his photography and formed his own personal style concerned with Mexican rites and customs.
He was active from the s until his death in the s. Like other artists of the 20th century, he was concerned with balancing international artistic trends with the expression of Mexican culture and people.
His photographic techniques were concerned with transforming the ordinary into the fantastic. From the end of the s to the s his photography developed along with new technologies such as color, using the same themes.
In the s, he experimented with female nudes. These post-Revolution photographers influenced the generations after them, but the emphasis remained on documentary journalism, especially for newspapers.
For this reason, the focus remained on social issues. During the s, a fusion of various styles retained a social focus. Photography in Mexico from the latter 20th century on remains mostly focused on photojournalism and other kinds of documentary.
Francisco Mata de Rosas is considered the most notable photographer in contemporary Mexico mostly working with documentaries.
Patricia Aridjis works with social themes, mostly to illustrate books. One of these is Javier Orozco who specializes in interiors.
However, purely artistic photography has had an impact. The photographs set off a wave of social criticism as well as tabloid gossip. General Emiliano Zapata , leader of revolutionaries in Morelos beginning in and ending in his assassination in .
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